The effects of climate change on agriculture are being witnessed all over the world. Small and marginalize farmers with poor coping mechanisms are more vulnerable in view of their dependence on agriculture and excessive pressure on natural resources. In the recent years, there has been significant rise in the frequency of extreme weather events affecting form level productivity and impacting availability of staple food grains since climate change poses complex challenges like multiple a bio-tic stresses on cops and livestock, shortage of water land degradation and loss of biodiversity, focused and long termed research is required to find solutions to the problems.
Increasing population and rising economic growth are putting tremendous pressure on the agriculture sectors to meet the present and future demand for food commodities. Unfortunately, the agriculture sector is confronted with numerous inherited challenges, which include stagnating crop yields and decline profitability mainly due to growing input use inefficient and deteriorating quality & quantity of natural resources. Rising food prices, inconsistent trade policies and deteriorating agro-institution are further aggravating the agrarian crisis. Climate change is further exasperating the agricultural sector. Evidences show that agriculture sectors are more vulnerable to climate change as their risk bearing ability is extremely low. It is, therefore, important to minimize climate impact through available adaptation options.
There is a need to develop in inventory of climate smart agriculture options and assess their technical and financial feasibility at different scales. Since, resources are limited and agro-ecologies and socio-economic conditions are heterogeneous, it is also necessary to prioritize adaptation intervention for higher impacts. The focus needs to pro-poor and risk mitigation options for different agro-ecological and socio-economic environments.
Climate change has emerged as daunting challenge fir the global community. Agriculture sector has been impacted with production declining due to climate change effects such as heavy rainfall, drought, flood and landslides. This has further aggravated problem for hunger. We have faced these problems repeatedly in developing countries. We can never be prosperous without eradicating food crisis, poverty, malnutrition and ultimate address the impact on climate changes. Developed countries must extend their role for their financial and other assistance can go on long ways in helping fight against poverty, food crisis, hunger, climate change and malnutrition.
Rich industrialized countries are more responsible for emission of greenhouse gases. But environmental degradation and climate change have adversely impact countries like third world. Furthermore, developing countries are more affected due to lack of investment and technical capacity to cope with impacts. Glaciers are at risk. As climate change has adversely impacted agriculture, biodiversity, water resources, health, and forestry sectors, employment and livelihood of indigenous people and marginalized communities living in such areas is also at great risk. They are not responsible for this and should not be blamed. But they have to pay in terms of the impacts they have to bear. In this sense, they are heavily penalized. Environmental problems and challenges can be grouped in two categories: natural and man-made. As majority of the problem are related to deforestation, it is necessary to emphasize forest management. Should focused that location-specific and climatic appropriate tree species should be planted and natural for positive impact on the environment to ensure the conservation of species, and as sinks for greenhouse gases so as to increase possibilities of carbon trade, Such as plantation should pay attention to economic benefits and social usefulness.
A cursory look at the recorded history of human being amply indicates that the growth of population and economic activity has remained fairly stable. The advent of market economy and rapid technological progress altered this pattern dramatically. Technological innovation raised this productivity of both capital and labor. Standard economic growth models places to limits on this process. However, mineral resources and regenerative capacity of forest and other living resources have physical limits. With living resources have physical limits. With expansion of national and global economic activity, the flow of solid waste toxic and radioactive waste and atmospheric emissions pose specific environmental problems that required local, regional and global solution.
In conclusion, climate change does bring opportunities also. Developing countries can look for some inspiration. For example, Costa Rica is using the UNFCCC process of NAMAS (Nationally resilient varieties and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Australia has passed legislation for its carbon farming initiative, which will see farmers rewarded for activities that reduce greenhouse gas emission or sequester carbon.