December 20, 2012



Snow is an important component of the cryosphere and an integral part of the global climate system; snow cover both affects and is affected by patterns of climate and climate change. Observation and monitoring of components of the cryosphere are necessary for an understanding of the cryospheric and terrestrial climate system. Predictions about the future state of the environment, in particular the functioning of the climate system cannot be attempted without through analysis of cryospheric processes.

The earth’s surface where water is founded in solid forms such as ice, glaciers, and permafrost. In the northern hemisphere in winter with, about 50% of the land surface is covered with snow. Snow is the important that changes most rapidly with the seasons. Because of the feedback effects these changes generate and their influence on surface energy and atmospheric process. Snow is an important focus for research into climate change and adaptation. Monitoring snow-covered areas and making timely information available on snow cover thus contribute to providing a scientific basis for sound government policies on water use and adoption to climate change. Recently changes have been observed in snowfall patterns with respect to timing, intensity and duration. The anticipated changes in precipitins patterns driven by climate change is likely to have a considerations impact on the Himalayan cryospheric for freshwater.
Snow plays a vital role in the energy and water budgets of drainage basins in the Himalayan regions. Snow and glacier melt constitute 50 to 90% the total river discharge in some major rivers systems during the dry season. Hydrological modeling in Himalayan region is very difficult owing to the limited data available from the sparse observation networks and the enormous spatial variability of runoff formation factors such as snow process.

Snow Glaciers Data:
Developing and validating a new algorithm and having it endorsed by the scientific communities are a protracted and rigorous process. Climate science needs long-terms data to predict future trends. Several researchers have expressed the need for snow data over a longer term than currently available as a basis for credible research on climate change. The global snow cover products still have scope for further improvement in terms of accuracy, but they provide a good first assessment of snow cover status and an indication of where efforts should be focus.  Snow cover is one factor among a range of environmental data needed to understand the complex system of climate and other change. Access to data is another important aspect which needs addressing. In this case it will be important to develop appropriate ways to share the snow data. Hydrological runoff models for estimation of water resources should be promoted and the use of snow-cover data should be encouraged. It is important to ensure that the data should be easily accessible which can be used to support research on climate change and climate change adaptation, as well as more immediate local purpose.

Glaciers:
Accelerated melting of glaciers due to global warming is worldwide phenomenon. Glacier retreat increases the risk climate hazards, such as glacier lake overflows, known as Global Glacial Lake Partnership (GLOF) the management of which is one of the new challenges posed by climate changes in high mountains environments.


In conclusions, all the challenges what we have been facing can be solve through raising collective voice. Ongoing international negotiations on climate change and sustainable development offer us all a major opportunity to have a collective bargaining and platform that can ensure that we are not only heard, but our issues should be taken on international climate conferences. Therefore, there is an urgent need to make progress in climate change negotiations and to ensure enhanced and predictable financing, especially for the developing and vulnerable countries. This calls for urgent action by all to reduce greenhouse emissions based on the principle of equity to address the root causes and support the developing countries to adapt climate change and impact mitigation. This needs new and additional financial resources, expedited provisions for climate and environment-friendly technologies and support capacity building. Climate change data management system should be emphasized. 

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